Extracted from Midgleyana written by John Franklin Midgley

NOTES



NOTES AND COMMENTARY

FOREWORD

1. Dr. C. Pam in his foreword to De Villiers's Genealogies of old S.A. families p. xxvii. Or nearly all J.F.M. War of American Independence 1775 - 1783 see my wife's genealogical tree page 70.

2. Education in England was dependent upon voluntary effort mainly through the Church, until the Acts of 1870  to 1891 introduced free and compulsory elementary education.  Mr. W.E. Forster  M.P. for Bradford had the giant's share in the first Act of 1870. See chapter 11 page 58 for my genealogical tree.

3. For instance, following on the Norman Conquest A.D. 1066 and lasting for some five centuries there is the period of the Middle Ages which has no definable date for its beginning or its end.  It was the time of the Feudal System and the rule (and misrule) when the Church and the Nobility  acquired vast estates and wealth. It witnessed the catastrophe of the Black Death in the 14th Century, the Hundred Years War in France, and The Wars of The Roses in the 15th century which were a struggle for power between two groups of aristocratic families. The refusal of all reform by the Church, to preoccupied by secular interests, and its failure to do anything to satisfy the general discontent led by Tudor Henry VIII, through the instrumentality of Parliament, effecting the anti-clerical revolution which more than any other single event marked the end of medieval society in England.
Succeeding periods saw the internal peace and expansion in the Golden Age of Elizabeth of the 16th century, the war of ideas in Church and State of the 17th century, and in the 18th century the rule of law secured by the events in the preceding century, and lastly the specific work of the reform in the 19th century.

4 Brigantes or Brythons. The practice of tattooing was almost universally prevalent in Britain and survived among the remoter tribes whom the Romans called the "Picti". Sir Charles Oman. The Midgleys had thus the humblest of primitive origins.

5. Nor was money grubbing "per se" or at the expense of their fellowmen a focal point of existence. I am not suggesting that any member of the family should take up politics as a career, a hazardous one at best, though there is a vital need in every country for persons of integrity to be properly trained for such a role.
Ignorant amateurism is the curse of politics. Politics is the only profession requiring no academic qualificaion or other necessary hall-mark by tuition and examination as a minimum test of fitness and suitability. Just as certain standards are required for teachers, architects, lawyers, medical practitioners and so forth, even progressive farmers take diploma courses- so compulsory conditions should be laid down for aspirant politicians. A course of study in history for one should be obligatory. Did not Aristotle say that those nations who ignore history are doomed to repeat its tragedies. What is not earned has no verity!
In this twentieth century since the payment of members of parliament and the introduction of universal franchise, every Tom, Dick and Harry considers himself eligible, and more have tended to enter the field of politics not so much to render service to their fellow men as to seek personal aggrandisement, position, prestige, power and property. This tendency has been facilitated by this very 'one man one vote' bringing the uneducated proletariat into the picture, clay in the hands of the unscrupulous politician.. Again what is not earned has no verity. Hence the dictatorship of the masses, and thus the pendulum has sung from one extreme to the other!
Nothing more surely paves the way for despotism than legislative bodies whose individual members lack the necessary intelligence and 'Humanitas' in all its connotations. Why should millions of men be slaughtered because of the manipulations of scheming politicians and the merchants of death, the munitions chiefs. National interests must be subordinated to the wider interests of humanity if the peoples of the earth are to escape another world war.
6. My grandmother's uncle George Jaques owned the prosperous Waterloo mills, Silsden. His grandfather Colonel Henri Jaques escaped from France during the Revolution. see p. 60.

7. Also to Olga Starke, whose selfless devotion has helped to raise three generations, and who held the fort during our absence overseas in 1968. I used to ride along the moors above Bingley round Eldwick in my Uncle Ted's pony trap, especially over Rumbles Moor to Ilkley.
8. Gulliver's Travels by Dean Jonathan Swift 1726. This satire was the product of the bitterness and misanthropy of his tormented and emotionally intolerant spirit.
 

NOTES CHAPTER 1
1. The outline of Halifax Parish is similar in shape to that of Yorkshire and a comparison will fix them both in the memory.  It is a somewhat neglected corner of the Riding i.e. by the student and tourist.
2. Another neighbouring old parish was Dewsbury, the antiquity of which as a Christian centre of great importance is shown by the great size of the parish before the Norman conquest when it included Halifax, Huddersfield, Almondbury, Thornhill, Kirkburton and all the country westward to the Pennine watershed.
3. On my recent visit I noticed a number of derelict farm houses on the moors between Calder and Worth. Farming is no longer profitable in this isolated area.
4. "And drown'd in yonder living blue
    The lark becomes a sightless song"  Tennyson  Speight p.38.
Defoe : "From Blackstone Edge to Halifax is eight miles and all the way, except from Sorby to Halifax is thus up Hill and down; so that I suppose, we mounted to the Clouds and descended to the Water level about eight times in that little part of the journey".
In former times Bingley district was thickly wooded and the town itself gained the appellation "The Throstle Nest of Old England" John Nichoson's pen depicted its diversity of hill and dale, wood and water, not surpassed in beauty and variety in any part of Airedale. "All Yorkshire to Bingley Vale must bow"
Of this huge crag (Druids' Altar Rock) and its traditional uses he says:-
"The rock, which yet retains the Altar's name
Had honours paid, and mighty was its fame;
There, 'tis presumed, the mistletoe was laid
While to their unknown gods the Druids pray'd:
There were domestic quarrels made to cease
And foes at variance thence return'd in peace
Unlike the warrior priests of modern day".

5. Not to be confused with the Black Country of South Staffordshire

6. Twelve peregrinations by the parson and choir with switches round the boundaries where landmarks (and the boys) were beaten in the interest of remembrance and tradition.

7. The first break into the Old Township as above described came in 1868 when Luddenden Foot Local Board was formed out of portions of Midgley and the old neighbouring townships of Warley and Sowerby. That part which went to Luddenden Foot was from Upper Foot to where the brook enters the Calder, up Luddenden Lane to Kershaw House on the West side to to Ellen Royd and down to Upper Foot.  Then in 1892 on the formation of the Mytholmroyd Local Board out of portions of Midgley and the old neighbouring townships of Erringden, Sowerby, and Wadsworth, Mytholmroyd took from Midgley, that part of Scout Head to Foster Clough and downstream to Clough Bottom, along Calder to Upper Foot and Luddenden Foot, including Ewood, White Lee and Brearley. Finally Midgley lost its local authority when, as from April 1st, 1939, it became a ward of Sowerby Bridge Urban District Council.

8. Branwell Bronte used to visit the Lord Nelson Inn down in Luddenden when he was a station master at Luddenden Foot station. Mrs. Hannah Thompson of Carr Field, Luddenden, who died in 1905 and whose uncle was Dr. John Mitchell, the Brontes' family doctor, used to recall how she visited Charlotte and how Branwell had boils and she used to dress them for him.

9. Heptonstall is a quaint and picturesque village across the Hebden Valley from Wadsworth and Midgley.
10. The Murgatroyds were an old Calderdale family, like the Midgleys, and originally sprang from a clearing, moor-gate-royd, near Warley Moor at Holins. Branches also spread into Airedale See page 48. The mill at Oats Royd was founded by John Murgatroyd in 1840.

11. Rombald's or Rumbles Moor in the divide between Airedale and Wharfedale or between Bingley and Ilkley.

12. Geoffrey Coning's large colourful map of the Bronte Country which includes so many places mentioned in this narrative cannot, regrettably, be reproduced here. It is my belief that a man takes on the protective colouring of his environment as do the lower animals. In the bleak regions he inclines to become dour, silent and perhaps a little melancholy. I'm not saying that our part of the West Riding is not beautiful at times in all seasons, but these can be of comparitively short duration and the balance of the time does not then incline a man to laughter and gaiety.

NOTES CHAPTER 2
1. The generally accepted order is first the Neanderthal race replaced by the Cro-Magnon race 40-30,000 years ago, then the New Stone Age Neolithic culture from Western Europe, succeeded by the invasion of the Bronze Age Celts from across the Channel by B.C. 2,000.

2. Caesar's War commentaries quoted by L. Cottrell reveal that they were nevertheless skilful and experienced warriors. Red clay was highly prized by the Xosas for ornamental purposes.

3. Though the term Riding is of later origin, it is used henceforward for the sake of convenience asa the West Riding was the original habitat of Midgley forbears. See text on page 15.

4. The use of iron revolutionised society.

5. The war chariot proved a formidable weapon initially against the Romans who were mainly infantrymen. Two La Tene beads were found at Luddenden

6. Motivated also by personal pride in conquest and curiosity as to what lay beyond the rim of the white cliffs of Kent.

7. Hers may have been at Almondbury hill-fort.

8. Compare the British camp on the Malvern Hills, Bratlow Camp, Wiltshire and Maiden Castle, Dorset. It would be impossible to man the entire length of ramparts so there was a central high observation or control-point at the Tofts to direct rapid concentrations at threatened points.

9. Prompted by the oppressive extortions of the Roman Procurator, Decianus Catus and Seneca, inter alios. See Cottrell p. 134. She had been scourged and her daughters ravished by the Romans.

10. At Adel a Roman Altar stone has been found inscribed to the godess Brigantia.
See Speight p. 64. Johnnie Gray p.67 For Adel see p. 49 of text.
On March 17, 1775 as a farmer was making a drain in a field at Morton Banks, near Bingley, he struck upon the remains of a copper chest about twenty inches beneath he surface, which contained nearly 100Lbs. weight of Roman denarii, probably a military chest hiden in some emergency. They included every Emperor from Nero to Pupienus - from A.D. 54 to A.D. 238 - with the two exceptions of Pertina's and Didus Julianus, both murdered incidentally by the Praetorian Guards in A.D. 193.

11. Their food as extremely simple and meat was rarely eaten. "The Roman Army marched on vinegar". When the Roman centurion offered Jesus Christ a sponge soaked in vinegar, he was performing a charitable act. It was his own standard drink. See Cottrell p. 73.

12. Britain was the northernmost frontier of the Empire for some 400 years. Apart from Syria it was the only Roman province that was permanently occupied by three legions. The third, 2nd Augusta, was stationed in Wales at Caerleon on Usk [Isca Silurium], Monmouthshire: Welsh for Castra Legionis. All three bases had good waterways to the sea.

13. At first Roman soldiers were forbidden to marry Britons.

14. Note the famous baths of Vespasian, A.D. 86, Aquae Sulis, Bath, which I visited.

15. Speight p.55.

16. With regard to poor old Severus, Edward Gibbon categorically states in his monumental work, at the end of Chapter V Vol. 1 "Posterity..... justly considered him as the principal author of the Decline of the Roman Empire"!
Roman Britain might be divided geographically into two parts; the Civil Zone, inhabited by a particularly Romanised society in the more fertile lands of the South and East; and the Military Zone of the more barren and mountainous North and West. In the latter area up to the great Wall the army of occupation patrolled the wild Pennine moorlands, marched and counter-marched from fort to fort, whilst as I have indicated, the sparse population of tribesmen- our Brigantes, a turbulent and dangerous folk- came down to traffic shyly outside the forts and on occasion of rare opportunity broke in to kill and burn. There were no cities and few "Villas" in the inhospitable West Riding, only forts, round some of which, such as Ilkley, a village or 'vicus' grew up to supply the needs of the garrison. Here in half-timbered houses, better than the primitive wattled and thatched circular huts of the natives, lived the women attached to the long service veterans quartered in the fort.
G.M. Trevelyan, sometime Master of Trinity College, Cambridge, regards Roman Britain as the prelude to the drama of English history, of which the first scene must be England after the Saxon conquest. The Roimans vanished, leaving their roads, their ruins, and here and their their the potent Christian seed.. Their cities and villas were an 'alien interlude' and Britain 'went native' again. He compares the Roman Conquest to the Norman for its introduction for the introduction of new social, administrative and cultural patterns, but neither the Roman nor Norman invaders changed the racial character of the islanders to the degree of the intervening Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian mass-settlement of men and women. Very little was done under the rule of the Caesars to reclaim new lands or to penetrate the forests., e.g. Elmet, and the few cities, with the exception of Londinium and possibly York, remained the parasite on the countryside for the Romanised Britons never took kindly to town life. There were no walled towns to carry on a continuous civilisation across 'The Dark Ages' when the legions withdrew.. Then even rural society began to break up, the villas were destroyed and abandoned and the British tribes lapsed into barbarianism.
Our English society, says Trevelyan, does not, like Italian and French, derive from the direct survival of things Roman.. The origin of modern England must be sought in the habits and ideas of the very primitive but very vital invaders who landed from the longboats. This will be revealed in the following Chapter 3. These 'pagani' were 'country-folk', warrior farmers who sought a new home.. They came as the personal followers of a fighting leader, and though ruthless as foes, were bound to one another by a kindly comredeship and loyalty 'which may be the germ of modern English good nature'.
In their Continental homes by the sea there had been an atmosphere of freedom and there had been few slaves.. TRhey sought in Britain not only richer plunder but drier and better lands. These ancestors of ours must have been hardy and enduring folk to row themselves across the North Sea in long narrow open boats. They were lovers of horses, oxen, sheep and pigs, devoted to deep ploughing of the open fields they reclaimed by axe and spade. The ultimate effect of Anglo-Saxon settlement was greatly to enlarge the arable area by the felling of dense forests which the Romano-Britons had left untouched. As a rule they did not like the Romans and the Normans, come to exploit the land by the labour of the conquered natives. They came to till it themselves by their own peculiar system of open field cultivation and for this purpose formed their own village communities.

NOTES CHAPTER 3
1. Speight p.52 enumerates them up to 20 as they are pronounced in Engliah.

2. Cerdic laid the foundation of the Saxon Kingdom of Wessex A.D. 519. The last of the Cerdingas was Edward the Confessor 1042-1066.

3. Compare the 'Lebensraum' urge of the German Empire 1870 onwards- for trade and prestige.

4. Bernicia from the Tees to the Forth with its capital at Bamborough, south of Tweed mouth.

5. Helmet or Elmet. Edwain or Eadwin first took the capital, Loidis [Leeds]. Speight p.60

6. Northumbria was weakened by jealousy between Bernicia and Deira hence the Anglian srttlement of of Mercia expanded in central England to reach its peak under Offa. Lichfield was an archbishopric until 803. It was confirmed by the Bishop of Lichfield during World War I.

7. The strongly Anglian West Riding must have felt great bitterness at the invasions of the ruthless Norsemen. Jarrow near Tynemouth, Lindisfarne, Holy Island south of Tweed mouth.

8. Obstinate national pride was seen in the prolongation of the Hundred Years War in France, vide text page 23 and footnote 17 Chapter 5.

9. Almondbury was no doubt the town of the Brigantian Queen Cartimandua see p. 9 above. Witanmoot Council for Witenagemot.

10. Alfred encouraged writing in the vernacular. The last of his line, Edward the Confessor, owing to his upbringing on the Continent favoured the appointment of Norman clergy versed in Latin. Vandals violated Alfred's tomb in the 16th C.

11. Godwin had married Gytha, Canute's cousin. He supported first Harthacnut, son of Canute and Emma, widow of Aethelred the Redeless, secondly Harold Harefoot, illegitimate son of Canute, and finally on their deaths, Edward the Confessor 1042-66, last surviving son of Aethelred's second marriage.
On the accession of Ethelred II, who could not tell good redes from bad, there was no reason whatsoever why England should not have beaten off the enemy with ease, but the tragedies 'inter alia' of the enigmatical "Massacre of St. Brice's Day" Nov. 12 1002 and the treachery of Eadric Streona, Ethelred's favourite and eorldorman of Mercia tell their own bad story and merely played into the hands of Sweyn and the Danes. Ethelred's original evil genius was reputedly his mother Elfryth

12. England was not really united until the Norman Conquest. Wales was not conquered properly until later and Scotland later still!
The tendency to disunion previously was due to the creation of the great earldoms and their jealousy. The Northumbrians and Mercians failed to help Harold at Hastings, and the feebleness of the later kings of the line of Cerdic. The appearance of Halley's Comet in 1066 frightened the superstitious people. It is recorded in the Bayeaux tapestry. William's claim was based upon alleged promises of the succession by the pro-Norman Edward the Confessor, and by Harold under duress. The invasion was a crusade approved by Pope Alexander II.
While I was in London in 1968 I called on Henry Salt Q.C., sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge and his wife Hope M.B. Ch.B. at 4, Grays Inn Square. He was our head boy at Newcastle under Lyme and was later wounded in the leg at Passchendaele in 1917, the same year as Capt. Henry Coward, formerly one of my Form masters at Newcastle was killed at Arras. Henry Salt kindly 'vetted' these early chapters. He wrote to me as follows last year while mentioning his retirement as judge of the Durham County Palatine Court and the award of D.C.L. by Durham University 'honoris causa', which was conferred 'in absentia' owing to his illness at the time.
"Dear Kaffir, Little did we lads at Newcastle [Staffs.] in 1913 think that this nickname, conferred on you 'honoris causa' and affectionately, would ever come to be a possible stumbling block of offence 50 years on : and thank God it never has in your case because you have always kept your tincture of English schoolboy humour. So I can safely continue to address you..."
Newcastle's first Headmaster, Francis Elliott Kichener from Rugby, was also a Fellow of Trinity. In the Mathematical tripos of 1861 he was placed 12th Wrangler and in the Classical Tripos 1st Senior Optime.

NOTES CHAPTER 4
1. 'Hoc est wasta' repeatedly occurs in the Yorkshire entries of Domesday Book.

2. Castles were first introduced for the defence of Herefordshire against the Welsh in the reign of edward the Confessor who was much influenced by his Norman upbringing. Less than a hundred years after the Battle of Hastings, more than a thousand castles had been built in Britain. There were probably many castles or castlets along the Valley of the Aire, and one at Bradford of which all record appear to have perished.. There was evidently once a motte and bailey castle at Bingley. Later 'concentric castles were [built] such as at Conway and Carernarvon in Wales.

3. Similarly the Romans had 'sleighted' the Brigantian strongholds.

4. According to another source the Manor was bestowed by Henry I on the second Earl Warren as a reward for his enticement to England of Robert Curthose, the king's eldest brother. Robert Duke of Normandy was the eldest son of William The Conqueror but fell out with his father. He was nicknamed courte-heuse on account of the shortness of his legs. He was defeated by Henry at the Battle of Tinchenbrai in 1106 and later imprisoned for life in Cardiff Castle. Prince Henry's footsoldiers were chiefly drawn from England and the English could boast that Hastings had been avenged. Warren was originally de Warrene.

5. For terminology vide Turner p.50 and Speight pp.102-3. Bowen's map 1698 has the same spelling as Speede

6. Side by side with the ancient fields of the far older Celtic pattern. Also Admittanbces. see above p.20.

7. They did not thereby become automatically freemen in the eye of the Law.

8. In Warley the miller was Richard Paget in 1330. He took the multure

9. See page 29.

10. Harwood

11. The Scots were defeated at Falkirk and William Wallace was later betrayed and executed. The Battle of Falkirk 1298 is worthy of a more detailed description. Edward I used the Welsh archers., it was the southern Welsh who had so largely contributed to his success in subduing North Wales, the land of spearmen. to break up the 'sciltrons' of Scots pikemen. He thus demonstrated the power of the longbow which was to place England in the first rank of military powers, a weapon which was to weild a great influence iover her social history. The long-bowman was becoming an integral part of an English army and a necessity of English tactics. Springing as he did from the yeoman of the country, he was to bring into prominence a new class of people, the men who for good or ill were to mould the constitution of the country. Vide K.H. Vickers.

12. My school friend, Geoffrey Maddock of John Maddock and sSons, Potters of Burslem, Stoke-on-Trent, N. Staffordshire, founded in 1830, claims descent from this Welsh patriot.

13. The first election for a member of Parliament for Halifax was held in 1654 during the Commonmwealth period showing that it was then becoming a place of importance.

14. In 1728 Richard Sterne, the uncle of Laurence Sterne wrote the "Tristram Shandy" [1760] caught a widow Dorothy Maude and her son, Samuel, stealing wood from his grounds. He ordered the Constable of Warley to have both of them whipped publicly from Bridge End, parting Midgley and Warley, to the Smithy at High Road Lane and leading to Halifax.

15. There are quite a few villages named Carleton in Airedale - carle or ceorl being the Anglo-Saxon word for husbandman or farmer.

16. 'The Flowers of the Forest, that fought aye the foremost
      The prime of our land, lie cauld in the clay'.

17. "The Elland Tragedies" by J. Horsfall Turner. Vide also T.W. Hanson Chap. IV. Earl Warrene did not excel himself against the Scots in 1297. Another version claims he abducted the wife of Earl Thomas with the lady's consent.

18. Mention of Marley Hall arouses in me a certain nostalgia, for "Marley Brow", my great uncle Tom Walker's small farmstead was my home during school vacations. The Hall is now a farmhouse where I used to bring in the New Year, receiving in return a piece of spice cake and cheese. On the front entrance are carved the arms of Saville "Three owls on a bend" which also appear in a window in stained glass. see footnote.
The Office of Jester was often held by gentlemen wits of good family or education, e.g. Will Somers, Court fool to Henry VIII, whoe potrait is preserved at Hampton Court; and Berdic, joculator to William the Conqueror, who received a gift of three towns and five carucates in Gloucestershire.

NOTES CHAPTER 5
1. Of a couple of houses, a Methodist chapel and a roadside inn five miles from Wakefield.

2. About 1836 the manorial rights passed from the Farrers to Thomas Riley, whose forebear had established a great merchanting business. and remained in the family till the Land and Property Act of 1922 more or less extinguished these rights.

3. Poll Tax a tax levied on polls or heads. Exactio Capitum. Cicero.

4. Fletcher - one who fledged arrows with feathers.
    Schepard - self explanatory

6. The demesne lands of monastic manors were admirable examples of estate management and improvement. For lot of common people c. 1200 read Edith Pargeter's "The Heaven Tree", and any social history of England.

7. 3000 died in York during the first visitation.

8. Keighley pronounced Keethley - the gutteral 'th' represented by the 'gh' in modern spelling being a survival of pre-Norman times.

9. Turner p.107

10. In time the brown rats extirpated and replaced the medieval black rat. The former was not a carrier of the plague flea to the same extent.

11.Note later chapels elsewhere : St. Paul's at Crosstone in Stansfield, St. peter's, Sowerby, St. Mary's at Illingworth in Ovenden.

12. The God-damns to Joan of Arc.

13. It has been asserted that Jack Cade's revolt was sponsored by Richard Duke of York, but the latter was no Richard  Egalite who would countenance the abolition of tithes and the hanging of bishops.

14. In the thirteen major battles between 1455 and 1485 probably 100,000 combatants perished and after the vengeful slaughter of Wakefield it was 'war to the knife and the knife to the hilt'. As Francis Leary observes it was a time of splendour and agony. The protagonists of 15th century warfare were ruthless in refusing quarter. When granted, quarter had the economic motive of gouging a substantial ransom out of the prisoner. But in Civil War no such motive might exist, for each side considered the worldly goods of the opposing faction as already forfeit under the law of treason and attainder. Are we peoples of the 20th century any better, what with two World Wars of legalised murder on a wholesale scale, running into many millions of dead, 'on our hands and consciences'. The world again is presently a scene of simmering camps and conflicts on the scene of Armageddon.

15. One should not underestimate the role of ambitious women in this bitter struggle between Yorkists and Lancastrians sprung from the loins of the greast third Edward as such :-
   a) Margaret of Anjou, Queen of the feeble Henry VI, who fought to reftain the Crown for her son Edward until he was cruelly killed at the Battle of Tewkesbury, 1471. Henry VI was murdered later in the same year.
   b) Cecily Neville, widow of Richard Duke of York killed at Wakefield, 1460 and whose head was impaled on the gates of York, she was the mother of of Edward IV, Richard III and Margaret of Burgundy.
   c) Margaret Beaufort, widow of Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, died 1456 and mother of Henry VII.
   d) Elizabeth Woodville, widow of Edward IV, who had advanced the status of her brother and her son by a previous marriage these were regarded as upstarts by the older nobility - and those two sons Edward V and his brother were murdered iin the Tower allegedly by their uncle Richard III.
   e) Margaret of Burgundy, widow of Charles the Bold of Burgundy killed at Nancy, 1477.
All these women had much liberty, money and estates in their own right, and exercised great influence. Even good women when they wanted something for a loved one or saw it as ultimately right, could be more passionately ruthless than men. Then too "Heaven has no rage like love to hatred turned' Nor hell a fury like a woman scorned"- Congreve
A case in point was Isabella The Fair, Queen of Edward II. Also Eleanor of Aquitane (1122-1204) queen of Henry II.

16. Like his counterpart of 19th century France.

17. Unfortunately Henry did not inherit the strength and ability of his father and grandfather. He could not of course be blamed for the ever inmcreasing occupation costs and the resultant debacle of the policy of his uncles during his minority, in endeavouring to hold on to his father Henry V's conquests in France. It was absurd to expect a nation of 3 million to sit on a nation of 14 million with the richest patrimony in Europe, but then any voluntary disengagement would have offended national pride. France ultimately had a not entirely dissimilar problem in Algeria. Since the capture of Algiers in 1830 over a million European French had settled there for generations. Yet with their Mother country just across the Mediterranean they succumbed little more than a decade ago to the eight million Moslems who wanted more say and France gave too little too late.
It was a story of stupid politicians, a resort to terrorism and resultant blood-bath.
Is there not a lesson here for our republic [South Africa] in the matter of race relations. Should not the Coloured people be closer into the White community which created them? What of the increasing thousands of Bantu born within the Republic?
'Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them; for this is the law of the prophets Vide the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel according to St. Matthew, chapter 7, verse 12.

18. Most of all by the printing of the English Bible and Prayer Book in Tudor times.
The court French and the ecclesiastical Latin had long taken second place as people began to think in English, in the mixture of dialects called English.

NOTES CHAPTER 6
1. To-day Britain is completely accepting (?) a different kind of invasion. "A considerable influx of undesirable types has settled like some foreign fluid injected into the body in unassimilated hydatids wherever resistance was lowered in some cities...."  Not full of law-breakers but full of people accepting lower standards than even their immediate neighbouirs Vide Winston Graham's The Tumbled Hoiuse. Last Year one twelth of the children born in England came from parents either one or both of whom were non-white and too many unreformed.
It is noteworthy that Mr. Enoch Powell whose sound views have been so twisted and distorted has been named 'Politician of the Year' by the Yorkshire Monday Club, following a poll of its 160 members. It is the second successive year in which Mr. Powell has captured more than 80% of the votes, Good old Yorkshire! Powell may yet prove to be another prophetic Winston Churchill!

2. Not entirely for dynastic ambitions and military plunder, but also to keep open the market for her wool and cloth trade in Flanders and France. The tribute and plunder of France had revolutionised the primitive economy of the English feudal household.

3. Caxton's improved methods of printing, even using woodcut illustrations, began to turn out more books in a month than was done in years by the tedious script of monks and was bringing the world's literature within the reach of all.

4. Before and after the futile Field of the Cloth of Gold 1520.
Henry VIII was also guilty of debasing the coinage.

5. The Tudor monarchy was popular because it was strong and could "bridle stout noblemen and gentlemen", stop the terrorising of honest folk and the corruption and intimidation of the law courts. Simon Fish's pamphlet "The Supplication of the Beggars" had been read by Henry.

6. Anne came to Court in 1522. Henry married her in December 1532 or Jan. 1533- Act of Supreme Head 1534. Anne was executed on 19th May, 1536. She had borne Henry a daughter [Elizabeth] and a still-born son.

7. Earlier that century Gilbert Brooksbank, a Heptonstall priest, was killed by one of Sir Richard Tempest's officers because he had displeased the great man in some way.

8. If Henry had not been bankrupt, he might never have dissoved the monasteries at all, or he might have kept all their lands and tithes for the Crown, or he might have given more of their wealth to education and charity, had not his financial needs been so pressing. As it was he founded Trinity College on a larger scale than any other at Cambridge. G.M. Trevelyan - Chap. V.

9. A.L. Rowse "The Englandof Elizabeth" - Chap VI Social Classes.

10. The humble farmstead comprised in line abreast a small living room, barn and cattle-house i.e. a housebody, laithe, and mistal related to the Norse winterhouse. In Ayrshire on 18.7.1968 I inspected the humblest crofter's house of this design where Robert Burns was born. The hoyusebody later varied in dimensions according to the needs and status of the occupants. Of course large blocks of flats are now features of large industrial towns.

11. In Sept.1560 Elizabeth called on the existing currency of debased coins of her father's reign.

12. While the English custom of primogenitature forbade the younger sons to live on the family estate, they were not forbidden, like the children of noble families on the Continent, to seek their fortunes in commerce. It must be remembered that there was a leaven among the Parliamentary town forces of the sons of gentlemen brought up in manor houses of the countryside.

13. About the middle of the 18th century the finer worsted trade found its way into the West Riding through a family called Horsfall who had estates at Haworth and Denholme, and at first took hold at Halifax, where Samuel Hill of Making Place in Soyland set out to capture it.. Under the Domestic System the yarn was laboriously spun by hand a single thread at a time. With the mechanical inventions of the 18th century the workmen moved into the factory towns.

14. For centuries the making of cloth occupied man's daily thoughts. English literature and common speech aquired many phrases and metaphors borrowed from the manufacture of cloth, such as thread of discourse, spin a yarn, unravel a mystery, web of life, fine-drawn, homespun, tease, while all unmarried women were put down as spinsters.

15. The descendants of clothiers, who purchased old lands with new money, or of the richer yeomen who "gentletised" their sons were sooner or later accepted into the circle of families, many of whom had risen in the same way after the Black Death or the fall of the monasteries. A poor gentleman was sometimes glad to save his estate by marrying his sons to the dowries which a wealthy yeoman could provide for his daughters. See G.M. Trevalyn.

16. The various workmen in their own homes owned their own tools and plant. The clothier of course had to provide the warehouse.

17. H.J. Scott p. 179. Defoe wrote part of Robinson Crusoe while staying at the Rose and Crown in Halifax.
"There is a Proverb, and a prayer withal,
That we not to three strange places fall:
From Hull, from Halifax, from Hell 'tis thus,
From all these three, good Lord deliver us".
     John Taylor 'A very-merry-wherry-ferry voyage'.

18. In a quaint little shop in Ripon I bought a copy of Saxton's map of Yorkshire 1577.

19. The Halifax gibbet was one of the precursors of the French guillotine. Alister Kershaw p.21, T.W. Hanson p.29

20. England has given to the world her heritage of political and religious liberty as we shall indicate in subsequent pages. She has bequeathed to all English-speaking peoples not only her love of freedom, but the safeguards for its preservation. Among these priceless legacies the right of trial by jury is the most valuable and of all things in England, the most English.. Trial by jury is the trial of a citizen by his fellow citizens. In them and them alone is vested the supreme power of determining the guilt or innocence of the accused. No judge can pronounce sentence until a jury has first spoken. If the verdict is "Not guilty", no matter what a judge may think, the prisoner must go free. Rather a guilty man escape, than an innocent man be hanged. The Jury System, long debilitated and enervated by exemptions in our Republic, has now been abolished, rightly or wrongly depending upon one's point of view.

21. Letters and Speeches edited by Thomas Carlyle in the Minerva Library of Famous Books.

22. After the loss of Calais in Mary's reign 1558, England was left with the ancient trade routes of Bruges and Antwerp in the Netherlands until Granville and Alva forbade the English to sell their cloth there. This meant finding markets farther afield. By a seies ofdeceptions and political opportunism Elizabeth was was fortunately enabled to avoid involvement in the Continent for most of her long reign.

23. Horsfall Turner p.238. The numbers of lawyers who had made their fortunes were perpetually recruiting the ranks of the landed gentry, even more so than clothiers.

24.Some scholars from Halifax Parish in the 16th century noted by T.W. Hanson are these two: Henry Savile, who was born at Bradley Hall in Stainland in 1549, was Greek tutor to Queen Elizabeth, and Henry Briggs of logarithms fame and a Savilian professor at Oxford, was born at Daisy Bank near Mytholmroyd in 1561.

25. Shakespeare took an early opportunity of success in London to sue out a coat of arms for his father, impaling those of his mother's family, the Ardens. He diplays his usual wise acceptance of the arrangements of society. The real hero of "King John" is the honest gentleman, the bastard Faulconbridge.: through him speaks the English soil. Read also the dispute between the two brothers in "As You Like It" Act I, scene I.  A.L. Rowse, page 281. More can be found out in his plays about the real relations between the sexes, the position and character of Elizabethan women. The letters of the 17th century show wives and daughters as intelligent advisers of their menfolk.
In reality the majority of women were treated but little the better despite the new ideal. Woman was still a chattel to be treated brutally or fondly according to the whims of men. For instance the "ducking-stool" was for long evidently a favorite instrument in use, judging by the expense account of the Constable of Calverly 1728, for correcting 'scolds', as was the whip for those of the other sex. The ducking-stool appears to be of Saxon origin and consisted of a chair or stool on which the offender was placed and by the use of a long pole was let down into the water as a punishment for her vixenish propensities.
 
 

NOTES CHAPTER 7
1. A survey of Midgley History January, 1957, unpublished. He died in 1967 at the ripe old age of 81 and before I could meet him, nevertheless I trasure his correspondence.

2. See my article in Familia, Year (Jaargang VI) 1969, p.10.

3. The Keighley Parish registers began only in 1562 and the first Midgley entry occurs under April, 1563 and reads :-
    "The xxvth daie John Midgley son of William was buried"

4. A result of the Restoration Government's dire need of funds? Chimney stacks long bore witness tho the presence of wall fireplaces in rooms of houses of the well-to-do. This was an improvement of the 15th century making that central fire, the smoke of which escaped through a louver or vent in the middle of the roof, an outmoded form of heating. It was not until the 17th century when coal came into greater use, that chimneys became an established feature in house building, where stone [and bricks] was replacing wood.

5. Dr. Whittaker published a history of the Parish at the beginning of the 19th century.

6. Harwood. Hanson p.102. Innes' England under the Tudors. p.234

7. It was found necessary in 1596 to send the expedition that sacked Cadiz.
    The following year Philip's second Armada was destroyed by storms. Once again "Deus afflavit et dissipati sunt".

8. Incidentally, Midgley Township never had a Grammar School, unlike Sowerby, Warley and Heptonstall 1642. Farrer of Ewood petitioned for a charter and his family gave the site of Heath Grammar School 1598. He, along with John Lacy of Brearley and the latter's brother-in-law John Deane of Deane Hoiuse became first governors of the school. There was a collection in Midgley on behalf of founding the school realising  £3  16s  4d.  In the 18th century Dr. John Fawcett established a school at Brearley Hall, later transferred by him to Ewood Hall and continued by his son until about 1830. This was chiefly but not exclusively for young men intent on entering the Baptist ministry. About the same time the Luddenden Church School was built. Later at Ewood Court Richard Cockcroft ran a school for over 40 years and Mr. Harwood's mother was a pupil there.. See end of paragraph p. 52 Under the Education Act 1870 which eventually made elementary education compulsory a Midgley School Board was established to control the half score of schools that came into being on a small scale.

9.Dr. Favour was the prime mover in the establishment of Heath Grammar School in Skircoat, the Queen's charter having been previously obtained in 1585.

10. Including some Puritans in Halifax Parish who feared persecution, namely Matthew Mitchell, a pious and wealthy person and his son Johnathan, who sailed in 1635, and Richard Denton, minister of Coley.

11. Daniel Defoe was to complain early in the next century about the increase in Stock Exchange gambling. Many were caught by the bursting of the South Sea Bubble in 1720. The company's £100 stock rose insanely through artificial manipulation and wild rumours to £1, 060 in June and fell to £150 in September! One is reminded of the speculation craze in the Republic in 1969 and the subsequent outcry against alleged operations of Johannesburg syndicates taking advantage of uncertainty triggered at first by Government indifference and negligence permitting them to 'bear' on a falling market. A collapse somewhat similar to that after Sharpeville in 1960 though due to a different, political reason. Bearing denied by President J.S.E. 31/3/70.

12. The large houses that continued to be erected all over England in the following century usually had fine libraries and one of the most famous bookshops in the kingdom was that of "Edwards of Halifax", Founded by William Edwards, who died in 1808 James Edwards, his most famous son, who opened a London bookshop in 1784, was the first London bookseller to display valuable books in splendid bindings. He was a great book collector and followed Napoleon Bonaparte's army into Italy buying rare books and manuscripts from the soldiers after they had looted palaces and monasteries. He also purchased notable Italian and French libraries and so enriched the great collections of England with treasures of the Continent. Previously his brother John had been guillotined during the Revolution while on the same quest. A brother Thomas who stayed at home to keep the bookshop in Old Market, sent out a catalogue in 1816 which mentions over 11,000 books.
Kershaw House has become a public house, and Brearley Hall a welfare home for elderly women!

The Cotwold people had also prospered from the wool trade. Here, in many towns and villages such as Broadway and Bibury can be seen gabled and dormered houses and cottages built of honey-coloured stone, with mullioned windows and stone roof slabs , all fitting naturally into the landscape, as we commented on our recent visit in 1968.

Sometimes they have swaggered a bit what with their big houses, gardens, tennis courts and parklands, but despite the clinking of the money in their pockets, they are still warm-hearted.

NOTES CHAPTER 8
The Court of Star Chamber, the first restriction of the free press of England, was unknown either to the English Constitution or to English laws, though it had been given a definitely legal status by Parliament's disapproval of the King Henry VII's Council1487. This creation of Tudor despotism, designed to control the powerful baronage, has been the instrument of the worsdt instances in the blackest days of English history. It sat without a jury and decided both the law and the facts.Without restraint of honour, law or conscience, it has imprisoned, pilloried and mutilated with sadistic fury, until there came a day when England rose in rebellion against the Stuarts.

2. How the rule of law is being encroached upon by the rule of government to-day is noticeable, particularly in our Republic with peculiar conditions.

3.G.M. Trevalyn's England under the Stuarts [Methuen] is a recognised reference book. In 1628 the Petition of Right by the acceptance, became a Statute of the realm, prohibiting arbitrary Acts of Billeting, Martial Law, Taxation and imprisonment. Charles hardened his heart soon afterwards.

4. Seven of the seventy lived in Halifax township. One was Nathaniel Waterhouse who died without issue in 1645 and left history and money for the benefit of the town.. He built ther workhouse on a charter from the King in order to relieve the poor.

5.The Duke was stabbed to death at Portsmouth 23.8.1628 while waiting for a favourable wind for France in another attempt to relieve La Rochelle. THere was public rejoicing in England. The cause of this shameless approval of murder was that he had been saddled on the country.

6.Laud was carried to the Tower and executed four years later in Jan. 1645. Finch fled to avoid impeachment 1640.

7. St. Stephen's Chapel was used from 1547 to 1834 as a meetting place for the House of Commons. P. Stryker's 'For the Defence', a life of Thomas Erskine, includes an interesting description page 103 and of the last appearance there of the Great Commoner the Elder Pitt, p.45.

8. T.W. Hanson, pp.145

9. Lambert was born in Craven country near Skipton at Calton Hall in 1619. He could claim with some confidence a lineage as far back as Sir Thomas Lambert in the days of Henry III. For Lambert's career see Cromwell's Captains by C.J. Lucas Phillip.

10. The Royalist soldiers made a real mess of the town carrying away everything that was worth selling. In their search for treasure, these soldiers emptied all the beddings and mealbags and the streets were full of chaff, feathers and meal.

11. Rupert never won a single major action and showed himself incapable of controlling the combined operations of a whole army. He forgot all but his own mad cavalry charge - from Edgehill onwards. Cromwell then properly recruited cuirassiers.

12. John Hodgson, a Halifax man, served in the Parliamentary forces in the West Riding fighting and in all Cromwell's battles and wrote an interesting account of his adventures. He rose to the rank of Captain and served for eighteen years, part of the time at sea under Admiral Blake against the Dutch.
T.W. Hanson, Chapter XI, describes the Civil War in the West Riding. The local accounts thatr survive of the fighting were written mainly by men of the Parliamentary side and the large majority of Halifax folk were so minded. Some of the Royalist persuasion included Langdale Sunderland, brother-in-law to Sir Marmaduke Langdale one of the King's generals. hew was heavily fined for fighting against Parliament and had to sell his estates to Coley Hall and High Sunderland nearby., where the family had lived for 400 years.. Nathan Drake of Godly in Rishworth was one of the garrison that held Pomfret Castle so long for the King and wrote a diary of the seige. Richard Gledhill of Barkisland Hall was knighted by the Earl of Newcastle and later killed at Marston Moor. Matthew Broadley of Lane Ends, Hipperholme, was Purveyor and Paymaster to the King's forces. He was a very rich man and lent money to King Charles.
Cromwell was pronounced Crumbwell, whence the Royalist toast 'God send this crumb well down'.

13. Extract from the Centenary number of Keighley Parish Church, p.41. The parish itself has been in existence over 800 years

14. We spent the first week of July, 1968 in S. Wales and visited Pembroke Castle and St. David's Cathedral.

15. Baillie with remaining Scots infantry surrendered at Warrington after his crushing defeat at Winwick nearby.
On Saturday 29th June 1968, we left the West Riding via the Aire Gap into Lancashire, passing therough Preston on our return to Worcestershire.

16. At the Restoration Monk's Coldstream Guards and the King's Horse Guards, about 5,000 men in all, were retained as a legal establishment.

17. Blake is second only to Nelson in England's maritime story. He was the true founder of the Navy, turning a congregation of ships into a Service with a corporate spirit. Formerly the strength of a fleet had been dissipated by individual captains breaking away to conduct separate actions on their own account, and tradition had been built on plunder and prize money.

18. There is no doubt that the death of John Pym in 1643 and of John Hampden at Chalgrove Field earlier that year proved a great loss to Parliament's cause for they were moderates and not extremists.

19. Colonel George Monk was taken prisoner by Col. Bright at Nantwich in January, 1644.

20. Note the Secret Treaty of Dover, 1670, and the second Stuart despotism. Charles was the son of Henrietta, the sister of Louis XIII of France. The Merry Monarch who was compared to his lusty stallion 'Old Rowley' was no man's fool. He was determined not to go on his travels again.

21. The tellers in jest had counted a fat Lord as ten, and had failed to rectify their figures - G.M. Trevelyan.

22. The Test Act provided that all persons holding any civil or military office should take the sacrament according to the rites of the Anglican Church. The Habeas Corpus Act 1679 did much to remedy the evasions of the right of personal liberty.

23.William was the son of William II of Orange and Mary, daughter of Charles I, his wife Mary was the daughter of James II and a Protestant.

24. Winston Churchill's "Marlborough His Life and Times", Vol II, p.1027. Grant Robertson's England under the Hanoverians p.25.

25. Not a few men joined the army in those days and some were forced to join the Militia. After 1757 each township had to prepare lists of its men between 18 and 45 years of age and the number of men required for the Militia was selected by the ballot. In 1776, Warley found five militiamen. General Guest who gallantly held Edinburgh Castle during the '45 rebellion was born at Hove Edge and nearby at Shibden Hall, Halifax was born William Fawcett who fought at Fontenoy as an ensign with General Wade's army and later became Commander-in-Chief of the British army.

26. The Civil Wars produced our greatest Englishman in Oliver Cromwell. In this inevitably cursory introduction to English history it is naturally not possible to enter intto all the complexities of that hectic period. Trevelyan has the following to say in his excellent essay on Cromwell's statue, which was rightly placed guarding the entrance of the House of Commons, with Bible and with sword. Cromwell himself was conscious that his work was mainly negative, like half the great anmd good things that are done in this world. England's wars against continental militarist empires for instance. "I am a man standing in the place I am" he said in 1657. "which placeI undertook not so much out of hope of doing good, as out of desire to pprevent some chief and evil, which I did see was imminent on the nation.".
Cromwell was himself of a good county family of moderate estate, allied by kinship or marriage to Hampden St. John and other Parliamentary leaders. He himself was not of the feudal type of squire but a gentleman farmer who belonged to the working rather than the enjoying classes. It must not be forgotten, stresses Trevelyan, in judging Cromwell's character and alleged schemes of personal "ambition", that he tried long and earnestly to bring about an agreement by consent which would have reconciled all parties and all protestant congregations under Charles as a constitutional monarch. Charles rejected the offer of the "heads of proposals" in June 1647, q.v., and when the King and Presbyterians raised a second Civil War against the Army and the Sects, Oliver lost his temper and cut off the King's head. Intolerance was the accepted doctrine not only of priests and presbyters but of politicians. Charles being an Anglican with a Roman Catholic wife was determined to put down all forms of Puritanism.
What they ought to have done with Charles, Trevelyan confesses "I do not know". Men sometimes have the misfortune to be faced by problems actually insoluble. As he would not come to terms with the victors he had to be deposed and that necessarily involved either exile, imprisonment or death. There were grave difficulties and dangers in each of these courses. I think they chose what in the long run proved the worst. But at least they did not degrade our history by assassinating him in prison, as had been done under similar circumstances with Edward II, Richard II and Henry VI". The execution of Charles antagonised the Anglicans and led later to the restoration.
Had Charles won he could have done what he liked with England and a royal despotism would have been set up as was already the fashionable model on the Continent. Even though his institutions did not last through no fault of his own, Cromwell saved the country from that great evil , from Presbyterian tyranny and from chaos and dismemberment. He conquered Ireland and Scotland and held the State together by force.  Blake and he raised the prestige of England in the world to a point from which it had declined under James I and Charles I and which it lost again under Charles II and James II, so that half a dozen years after the Protector's body had been gibbeted Samuel Pepys noted "It is stange everybody do nowadays reflect upon Oliver and commend him, what brave things he did and made all neighbour princes fear him". The Revolution of 1688 was rendered permanent by its connection not with a military Dictatorshiop but with a free constitution and agreement oif parties that had not been possible in Oliver's day.
Cromwell firmly believed, see the Book of Joshua I v.9. "Have not I commanded thee" Be strong and of good courage, be not afraid, neither be thou dismayed; for the Lord thy God is with thee whithersoever thou goest" I am reminded of some of my father's prayers in his humble walk of life "God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; the courage to change the things I can and the wisdom to know the difference".
 

NOTES CHAPTER 9
1. Nostell Priory had an income of  £606 and was among the sixth wealthiest in Yorkshire.

2. Turner p.124, 237-8, 287. Now the property of the National Trust. The hall was one of the costliest in Airedale. A barn near the hall has a roof timbered with oak almost like the inverted hold of a ship. Speight p.310 Extract from 'The National Trust' 1945, page 57.:-
"But already a breath from Italy is coming up this way, bringing with it some feeling for balance and proportion and sometimes spurring the native craftsman into a bewildered extravagance of fancy. This, which might be described as Italian not quite domiciled, or native baroque, furnishes its most striking examples (the epithet is in places uncomfortasbly right) in houses built to a grander fashion than the resources of the squire could compass. East Riddleston shows the stubborness of the Gothic, neither quite rejecting nor quite admitting the new style".
For further details of the Murgatroyd family see Speight pp.309, 327 and355. James Murgatroyd, who had made his money in the woollen trade, extended his possessions into Airedale and bought East Riddlesden Hall from John Rishworth, who had turned out a spendthrift and died miserably poor at Keighley.
The marriage of his eldest son John and a daughter of Midgley of Headley produced five sons.. John disinherited his eldest son Thomas for marrying Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Savile of Marley, but the foiur youngest sons dying early in life, what was left of the estate came at last to Thomas. See last sentence end od Chapter 4.
For his second son Henry, who married Jane Lacy vide page 23 above. Their issue intermarried with Cockcrofts and Oldfields of Calder Valley. His third son Thomas of Kershaw House, Midgley, married Hannah Rawson of Greenhill, Bingley. His only daughter Mary/Grace married Nicholas Starkie of Huntroyd who was killed early in the Civil War. See also pp.26, 42, 44 & 48 above.
Ryshworth Hall, Bingley, was bought in 1591 by Edward Bynns, member of an old Airedale family. In 1672 it was sold to William Busfeild by Abraham Bynnes esq. J.P., whose pew in Bingley Church had been confirmed by the Archbishop on the 10th December, 1668. As Justice of the Peace for a short period after the Restoration he was a great enemy of the Puritans. He left three sons and three daughters and his estate encumbered with debt. His eldest son was improvident, sold his land and became besotted.

3. We are reputedly related to the Haworth branch.

4. Archdeacons on their visitations would condemn the little Norman Church, perfect in its own way, as "too small and dark".
In the newer churches from the Age of Chaucer light flooded in and England was filled with towering forests of masonry of unrivalled beauty and grandeur.

5. Coincident with the Leper's hospital at Otley. There were hundreds of these hospitals in England in those days but happily for some centuries back the disease has been practically extinct.
That all these manors mentioned in this chapter have long ceased to be held by former Midgley owners may be explained no doubt in some cases to the land tax of 4s in the £1 to pay for the wars of William III and Marlborough. Though less fatal to the whole race of landowners than our modern Income Tax and Death Duties, it nevertheless was a sore burden to many small estates and the small squires were hard pressed.

6. "In peace there's nothing so becomes a man,
As modest stillness and humility;
But when the blast of war blows in our ears,
Then imitate the action of the Tiger" - Shakespeare Henry V, Act III, Scene1.

7. Rev. John Watson "The History and Antiquities of the Parish of Halifax in Yorkshire" 1775.

8. Francis Leary "The Golden Longing" p.181, states that the ball had five or six razor sharp projections. One may assume that on occasion the caltrap was employed as a grenade and thrown before an oncoming assault.

9. The Earl of Warwick, The Kingmaker, hasd prepared a 'Maginot line' of bombards, cuverins, falconets and the bombardiers (from Burgundy) had spiked shields which could be cast down in case of retreat. His front was mined with caltraps, nets of cord with upright nails, also moveable lattices with steel barbs protecting the gaps. Margaret decided against a frontal attack!

10. Dr. C. Pama 'Lions and Virgins' and 'Die Wapens van die Ou Afrikaanse Families!

11. The prescence of the bars and caltraps on the shield is meant to be symbolical respectively ofd the strengthening of the earliest shields and of the spiked bosses thereon, the first bull-hide shields were thgus reinforced and studded with metal. The original heraldic tiger (mythical) was replaced because it was felt that it had no special significance in our modern Republic. I am not in a position to state how many Midgley lines were armigerous. There could have been only a few. One original motto was 'Resurgam' - I shall rise again.

12. At Illingworth I met John Fox Midgley, an elderly bachelor with quite a collection of grandfather clocks.

NOTES CHAPTER 10
1. Keighley made woollen goods long before the introduction of the worsted trade. Incidentally the first cotton mill in Yorkshire was built at Keighley, circa 1780 under the direction of Arkwright who himself instructed the children how to use the machines..

2. Thomas Spencer was hanged on Beacon Hill, Halifax, on Saturday, 16th August, 1783, for leading a mob the previous June to break into the warehouses on Corn market when bread was very dear. This malpractice of tampering with the coinage was first perpetrated by the Jews in England. Already in Saxon times there were no doubt that Jewish merchants and slavedealers in England but they came over permanently in larger numbers with William the Conqueror and settled in London (Old Jewry off Chepside), Oxford (Moses Hall and Jacob Hall), and other parts of the country. They were not popular owing to religious bigotry and for economic reasons. They had no place in feudal organisation of society and being unable to take a Christian oath had no legal rights.. Their main source of income rose from the lending of money, but usury had been forbidden as hostile to the spirit of the Christian theology. Some indication of the savage hatred with which the 'cursed' Jew came to be regarded in medieval England is commemorated by Chaucer in the Canterbury Tales (Prioress' tale) and later by Shakespeare in his Shylock of the Merchant of Venice. Nevertheless the Jews prospered under Henry II only to suffer fearful massacres at the accession of Richard I, especially at York. Vast sums were extracted from their coffers by King John and the barons.
In spite of the wealth derived from them by the Crown, in Edward I's reign an Act of Parliament (Statute of Judaism 1225] attempted to reform the Jews, forbade money lending and directed them to engage in other occupations which for practical purposes were closed to them. As their only means of livlihood was gone, many Jews took to debasing and clipping the coin of the realm. This was an easy process when the only English coin was a penny, which to produce smaller units was roughly broken into two or four halfpennies or farthings, easily reducible in size by judicious paring. The example set by the Jews was soon followed by the Christians. Many were arrested, but the Jews were denied thew right of payment of large fines, and 293 were executed in London and a large number in the provinces.
A decree was subsequently issued banishing absolutely and irrevocablly all the Jews in the realm and confiscating their belongings.. Any Jew found in the country after the time-limit of expulsion was to be executed by hanging. By October 1290 over 16,000 Jews preferring the bitterness of exile to the shame of apostasy quitted the inhospitable shore of England. It was not until the Commonwealth period of the 1650's, when Old Testament sympathies and theoretical religious toleration inspired the government of Oliver Cromwell, thast the Jews found the road of return open to them. Incidentally the wholesale prosecution of Jews towards the close of the 13th century was followed by a reform of the coinage when new pennies of superior execution took the place of the old issues, while round halfpennies and farthings were now coined for the first time.. In England in 1912 I was able to buy sweets with a farthing! Vide Volumes in the Methuen series by H.W. C. Davis, K.H. Vickers, G.M. Trevalyn and Paul Goodman's History of the Jews.

3. A Halifax Parish man, Dr. John Tillotson 1630 - 94 born in Sowerby became Archbishop of Canterbury.

4. On his demise this eccentric vicar was carried by horse litter to Luddenden where he lies buried in the Church.

5. For more details about Grimshaw see C.E. Vulliamy's study of John Wesley. His 'Round' extended to Bingley and Wyke.
This stream of Methodism flowed from Haworth.
John Wesley leader of the 'Methodist' society, a movement to promote piety and morality in reaction against the apathy of the Church of England, founded by his brother Charles while a student in Christ Church, Oxford, always wished to remain a member of that Church, but he committed a definite act of schism in 1784 by ordaining a minister for one of his American congregations.

6. Take for instance the singing of the Marsellaise during the French Revolution from 1792.

7. The pioneer power looms were broken up by the irate workers who feared for their jobs when the faster machines came to the market. This Luddism was made a capital offence. The town had its organised bodies of "Plug Drawers". These plugs were drawn to empty the boilers.

8. The judges had confined the juries to decide only on the fact of publication and reserved to themselves to decide whether there was actually libel! Now even though the Act had left to judges the right of giving their opinion on the guilt of the accused- nevertheless the jury might give a general verdict of guilty or not guilty.

9. Another Thomas Midgley (1889-1944) was an American chemist who discovered the value of tetraethyl leasd as gasoline anti-knock compound. He developed a methos of extracting bromine from seawater, patented a refrigerant for air conditioning systems and was a pioneer in research on synthetic rubber.
A sound knowledge of English history and the struggle of the ordinary man for recognition down the centuries, in spite of inevitable checks, should give the unbiased student an appreciation of the tolerance of the English speaking peoples as a whole trancending all others e.g. the right to freedom of speech and the typically constant balancing of law and common sense in search of justice, even if at times on a tightrope.
Many make sardonic remarks on the blindness of justice. But she waers a blindfold not for the obvious reason. She wears it that her judgement shall not be swayed by the mere 'appearance' of those or whatever she judges in her scales or balances in her hands. At all times she is impartial.

10. Nor is it necessary to trace the development of the relations between employer and employee in the West Riding over the past 150 years. "The getr-rich-quick" wage slavery of the early 19th century in Britain gave way to a Victorian paternalism and charitable hand-out system in the later years of that century. This was followed by the growing consciuosness of the worker of the immense power he could weild by witholding his labour and the organisation of effective trade unions. The resultant conflicts between the powerful unions and the wealthy owners eventually compelled both sides to seek better means of regulating their relationship with each other and the Government to increasingly to step in with industrial legislation. This inevitably led to a much greater control over industry being put into the hands of the workers. See Argus review of Coates and Topham's 'Industrial Democracy in Britain' 10/6/1970.

NOTES CHAPTER 11
1. Though now 94 years of age, she is in full possession of her faculties, even expert at solving the daily crossword puzzle. She used to support her eldest brother's stand on behalf of her mother, and the younger brothers Percy and Fred were loyal to him. My asunt Alice informed me that she first noticed the habit after her father had joined the freemasons but she admitted she had never seen him actually intoxicated!

2. Possibly some psychological explanation from the fact that he was the only surviving brother out of six, and the only one to marry and raise a family.

3.See page 1.

4. Marriage entry No. 127. Charles Knowlton M.A. was rector from 1753 to 1814.

5. Searcher D.H. Barron reports that the 'e' in Holmes appears to have been crossed out and that the address was Hanwood or Hainwood Hill, no doubt the same place as Harwood which was opposite Hainworth across the river Worth.

5a. In the smoothly running tide of affairs during Queen Victoria's long reign there was no indication that this new 20th century was to be one of unparalleled violence which wopuld all but tip the world from its axis and send it whirling to destruction. Scarcely a family escaped the toll of valuable lives, and ours was no exception in the field of honour. Henry Coward fell at Arras and Watson Walker miraculously survived long periods in the trenches. In World War II Uncle Percy Midgley lost his only son, cousin Bessie Humphreys a son and Will Summersvales a son: and my brother Bill survived three Italian and three German prisoner-of-war camps.

6. A Butterfield and Summerscales fought at Flodden Field- Speight p.134. Hilda's grandfather was T.C. Butterfield my Dad's art teacher, a well-known painter of water-colours of Yorkshire series. I inherited one of Ravenroyd farmyard from my Dad and Dorothy has given me two others by her father before he went blind in 1918, one from Marley Brow looking across the Aire to Morton and the other near Druid's Altar above Marley, Bingley.
Joseph Booth Summerscales J.P. was related to Sir Richard Summerscales, rector of Burnsall and priest to the Chantry, of Our Lady in the Parish Church of Giggleswick and buried there 30.3.1557.

7. George's son, Plateral Lawson Jaques died without issue. They were known for their benefactions and coinsiderate treatment of their employees.

8. Watson Walker fought in the trench warfare of the Battle of the Somme, July-Nov. 1916, the scene of the greatest British losses in History through some of the biggest muddling by the Headquarters and Staff.

.9. See report in 'Cape Times' 22.1.1938.

10. Elsie's brother Frank who never married died last year, 1969. Dr. Blakey is the head of British Imperial Plastics.

11.Sir Abe Batley's father emigrated from Keighley in Yorkshire and became a storekeeper in Queenstown. Abe was born at Cradock on 6.11.1864 and educated in Yorkshire. Some years later, James Rhodes left for New Zealand: His grandson, Peter Rhodes, a pharmacist is presently in South Africa. Salaries of 70 years ago have increased sevenfold today.

12. The custom of holding a wake was prevalent also in the Highlands whjere the death and interment were celebrated with drinking, feasting and games.

13.I was a welcome visitor there whenever I called in on my errands to Bingley from Marley Brow. The Brown Cow Inn off Ireland Bridge which crossed the River Aire at Bingley witnessed some exciting scenes during the Chartist agitation, previously referred to in Chapter 10. Under the factory system in the West Riding there was a fearful amount of suffering and distress, long hours of work, low wages and an abuse of female and child labour. Oatmeal porridge and potatoes formed the principal dietary of the factory operatives.. As fuel was dear, porridge was boiled for breakfast in the morning and if, as frequently happened, there was nothing but porridge again for dinner, it would be poured hot in a bottle, then corked and placed in the cottagers' beds to be kept warm until they returned at midday.. Dry oastbread and a piunt of mint tea, sweetened with treacle, was the customary evening meal.. Through the efforts of Richard Cobden and John Bright, the wheaten loaf became the the poor man's daily meal. The Corn Laws were repealed with the defeat ofd the Protectionists in May 1846 but werre not to be abrogated immediately in their entirety. The duty was to be reduced to 1s after the first of FEbruary 1849, but in the meantime it was to be 10s when corn averaged less than 48s a quarter, diminishing to 4s when the price was 53s or over.
The Petty Sessions presided over by Mr. Ferrand, the squire of St. Ives, were at that time held in the Justice Room at the Brown Cow, the room afterwards occupied by Mr. Charles Hogg as a shool-room. In May 1848, a wild, hungry crowd
of men, old and young, brandishing shillahs, pitchfork, sticks, and bars of wood and iron, anything they could hold and anything they could hold, came trooping into Bingley and every plug was drawn from the boilers in the mills. On the 28th two of the ringleaders were committed to York but were rescued by the 'physical force' party who hammered off their shackles at the smithy nearby. The squire was threatened with violence if not death, but when the mob advanced up the Harden Road he went to the Altar Road and so reached home unhurt.
Magistrate Ferrand then organised the forces of law and order including pensioners with old flintlock blunderbusses, thgough considerable doubt was expressed as toi wheather half the old match-locks would really go off properly if required, and the men had to put up with a good deal of badinage. The military were called in on further rioting and on the 31st May Mr. Ferrand arrested the principal agitators, many of whom were taken while at work in the mills. Sixteen prisoners were taken and committed to York and sent off by special train.
Vide Speight p.231 et. seq. Charlotte Bronte in her novel Shirley draws some vivid pictures of life at that stirring period.

14. The pursuit of money seems to be the religious creed of increasing numbers of people to-day! His stepbrother, Stephen  controlled York brickfield.

15. One of his forebears was a trusteee of the old Weslyan Methodist Church, Bingley in 1817. For the Canon Browning Memorial (Rector 1869-1909) John Garlick gave £250 and John Foulds £150.
My grandfather John Foulds first served as churchwarden under Canon Thomas Browning, Rector 1869-1909. Browning was born in 1830, educated at Trinity College, Glasgow, and came out to South Africa when he was 26. At first he was a tutor at the Diocesan College, Rondebosch, and then became first rector of Clanwilliam at the special request of Bishop Gray.
When he came to St. John's in 1869 the congregation included people who lived ion their dignified old houses built in the old Dutch style round about Adderley Street, Burg Street, Long Street, Loop Street and Buitengracht Street. The church was a haven for poor fisherfolk who lived around in Sea Street, Fish Lane, Progress Lane, Waterkant Street, Michau Street, Jarvis Street, Riebeck Street and Prestwich Street, most of which have ceased to exist as residential areas to-day.
With a parish which extended to the end of Green Point, including the new and old Somerset Hospital of which he was Chaplain, with the convict station in addition to St. John's with its school and pastoral work, it was no wonder as he got older that the Canon found the work increasingly hard: "I sorely need an assistant Priest but I have not sufficient income to offer". Four times a week for 25 years Thomas Browning walked down to the Breakwater convict station for whose spiritual charge he was appointed by the Government.
This convict station provided the labour for the building of the breakwater which Mr. Gladstone had urged as a need for the protection of shipping in Table Bay during the winter gales, in terms of a despatch from the Governor of the Cape in 1846. So in 1860 Prince Albert, later Duke of Edinburgh, ceremonially began the work. In his 'Tavern of the Seas' Lawrence Green devotes half a dozen pages to this prison: "For human misery in the mass and over a long periodI suppose there has never been anything in South Africa to match the Breakwater prison. Some of the warders are still living- the evidence is abundant. For more than a century, white (many I.D.B. cases), coloured and native prisoners toiled in the quarries (where huge oil tanks are now housed), and harbour, carrying out one gigantic task after another. The prison became one of the most feared in the world, a place that ranked in the criminal mind with Dartmoor and Devil's Island. You can still see form an idea of the terrors of this prison by walking through the open gate in Portswood Road and gazing at the treadmills and the solitary confinement cells.......".
R.H. Morris devoted a lifetime to St. John's Church and before his 95th year deposited £900 with the Diocesan Trustees for the use of the Church. His son later Dr. Ritchie Morris, my cousin John Foulds, who later ,married Jenny daughter of Dr. Symington, and I were choir boys under Mr. Ghey, who was an organist and choirmaster 1903-'15.
This parish church was built on its site at the corner of Long and Waterkant Streets in 1848 during the period of the first
 Mewtropolitan Bishop of Capetown, the Most Rev. Robert Gray, 1847-'72, with the Rev. and Hon. Henry Douglas its first priest in charge. 1848-'53 has just been sold for R791,000, vide Cape Times 28.2.70. It is situated in the valuable fringe area of the Foreshore where vast building developments have been taking place, the Trust Centre, Mobil House, and B.P. Centre, shortly and where large cinemas will be re-built.. Alas, since the implementation of the Group Areas Act many of the coloured members of the congregation have been shifted to resettlement areas. So times change!

16.The foillowing is a reference to his son, my uncle Norman's prowess as a bowler. In ther period between the wars (1918-1939) the dominating figures in South African Bowls were probably Norman Foulds, James Donaldson, Frank Stevenson, Bob Ferguson and N.S. Snowy Walker. Fouldfs was for many years second only to John Johnston in the Western Province. He had an ideal personality, and studied the game as an art of strategy; yet he was the most modest of champions. Foulds played first for Green and Seapoint (1908) then for Pretoria City (where he won the Transvaals Singles Championship) and finally for Camps Bay. While a member for the last mentioned club, he won (the Western Province Singles title) the National Singles title in the Jubilee Year of Bowls at Port Elizabeth in 1932, and was a member of the Souyh African team in Britain three years later.
Vide A.C. Partridge's "Thus the bowl should run" pp.30-31. Hugh Keartland Publishers 1969.. The interpolations in parentheses are mine. My uncle Norman used to say there was a greater element of luck in bowls than any other game he had played, but over a series the really better bowler must win. His father John Foulds was also a foundation member of the Camps Bay Bowling Club 1920.

17.The bowling crowd alone were very musical and an entertaining set of people, including the Cooks, Dichmonts, Jacks, Ovenstones, Scotts and Wightmans, whose son Cecil became famous for his 'Snocktown Calling'.

18.It is sad to reflect that there is nw no direct male member of our branch of the Midgleys in Yorkshire who has a son to succeed him. The female members I met, who have needless to say married into other families to the great advantage of the latter, have all impressed me as vital personalities. They have not abdicated the throne of women as have too many of their sex in this world.
Throughout my narrative I have made no deliberate distinction between the sexes, treating them as one and the same. It is, of course largely the story of a man-ruled world with woman the legally inferior sex until this mid 20th cventury. Nevertheless I have acknowledged when women were at the helm of State down the ages from the Brigantian Queen Cartimandua and the Iceni Queen Boudicca. Woman owed a great deal to the Age of Chivalry at its best and to the long reigns of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) and Victoria (1837-1901). See note 15 Chapter 5.

Superstitions handed down unchallenged by our ancestors from the ages of Barbarism took a long time a-dying. The harsh treatment of scolds long persisted and similarly the belief in witchcraft. As late as the 17th C the witch-hunt had been set on foot by James I himself backed by the credulous Parliament, Masgistracy and Bench. The 'sport' had reached its height during the Civil War under grim Puritan rule and it was only late that century that the persecution of witches died out in England.
In 1756 Parliament repealed the already obsolete law that condemned a witch to die. Re scolds see note 25 Chapter 6.
In the second half of the Victoian Era Women's Colleges were founded at Oxford and Cambridge and women's secondary status was much improved. The Married Women's property Act released the wife, if she had money of her own from economic bondage to her husband. The 'equality of the sexes' began to be advocated in theory, and found its way increasingly into the practice of all classes. The demand for the political enfranchisement of women was the outcome of the very considerable degree of social enfranchisement already accomplished. G.M. Trevelyan and Mill's 'Subjection of Women' 1869..
In his book 'Ther Abductors' Stuart Cloete presents an authentic account of the fight during that era of W.T. Stead, Booth of the Salvation Army and others against prostitution and the White Slave traffic in English girls and for the amendment of the Criminal Law Act.
I have neither read nor seen anything to contradict that generally Yorkshiremen have always treated their womenfolk with proper respect, due no doubt to the strength of their religious upbringing.. And so they should. Man is conceived in her womb, she brings him forth and gives him suck. She is the very life and soul of the family and society.
However so many women to-day from adolescence are cheapening themselves and losing that respect due to their sex by apeing men, taking on their evils, their trivialities and childishness, by becoming enamoured of their bodies and arousing the lust of men. By this promiscuity she is in effect betraying her sex and becoming a slave, and not the emancipated woman as she believes. By neglecting her home and her children for her pleasures she is losing their regard. Let us hope that sanity and former standards of decency so disrupted by two World Wars will soon return.
I commend to the reader Taylor Caldwell's 'A Pillar of Iron' in which she gives 'inter alia' a conversation between Helvia and her son Cicero, replete with mother's comments on her sex, and the sertious shortcomings of the 'modern' Roman woman on the eve of the collapse of the Republic. Cicero was assassinated in B.C. 43, the year after Julius Caesar. These are equally applicable to-day.

NOTES CHAPTER 12
1. Endacott's Daily Mail, Grahamstown, Tuesday 8.7.1930 and Eastern Province Herald, Port Elizabeth, 10.7.1930.

2. Endacott's Daily Mail, Grahamstown, Tuesday 9.7.1930. Sir Cuthbert Whiteside died at Knysna on 25.10.1969. While mayor of Grahamstown he was knighted by the Prince of Wales on hisa visit to South Africa in 1924.

3. The Keighley and Midgley families must have been very old friends, for Joshua Keighley was a witness to the marriage of John Midgley and Ann Holmes, 30.7.1759, see p.59.
In the limited time available during his visit in 1912 my father introduced me to some of his former associates, but conditions in wartime England soon disrupted all normal social intercourse. I have a copy still of W.M. Thackeray's 'The Virginians' given to me one Xmas by R. Calverley Esq., one of his school friends and later a mayor of Keighley, as well as photographs of him and his wife in their robes of office. I have also a copy of Sir Percy FitzPatrick's 'Jock of the Bushveldt', of the first year of its publication, given to me by Edith Barton, the only child of old Keighley friends of the family, and her husband J.D. Reinhallt-Jones who was later President of the S.A. Institute of Race Relations until his death in 1953. My father used to find time of an evening to read from this remarkable book to his Likkle People. Fred Sharpe, the Andersons and Wrights were among other old Keighley friends I met.

4.Dr. John Hewitt died in the same year as my father, 1961, followed by his widow in 1969. Their son Dr. F.J. Hewitt is Vice-President of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, and a daughter Florence taught our youngest daughter Yverne at Wynberg Girls' High where she was Vice-Principal.

5. On our recent trip overseas Cousin Bessie said my father graphically described the incident in a letter to his mother, complementing me on my presence of mind. On one occasion my foot was impaled by a six inch nail at Scott's Kinmundy tennis court.

6. A fool despiseth his father's correction Proverbs Chap. XV, verse 5.

7. See references to the Midgley parsons pages 38-40.

8.My father wrote regularly keeping in touch with his children until his eyesight began to fail. I have kept a number of his letters to me even from my schooldays, advising, admonishing and complimenting whenever he thought necessary. His correction was never resented, he believed Meredith quoted by Winston Graham:
"Keep the young generation in hail
and bequeath them no tumbled house"
Much of the trouble with youth of recent decades is due to doting parents irresponsibly giving their offspring
too much rope too young, thus proving their unfitness to be parents? Is it not axiomatic that no thing is really appreciated unless one earns it?
Without proper parental care and guidance children may find themselves unable to cope with and adapt themselves to the normal state of society, and the resultant sense of inferiority and insecurity may drive them back to seek compensation in revolt. To-day with psychiatry explaining away this crime, transgression, or that, so that there's nothing, no behaviour for which it hasn't got the rangeof excuses, anything to take the blame off the person who has done it, and that's a thoroughly bad thing. In terms of explanations it isn't really the fault of the criminal offender at all, and when he is committed to prison he is left with the feeling that he hasn't done anything wrong at all, but that society has misunderstood him.
Once we feel that we are not responsible for our actions, or at least for yielding to the desires that prompt the actions, then it is an end to the meaning of good and evil as we've always understood them, and an end to moral laws as an influential tool. There are some values  that are absolute or as near as can be in this world. If a man doen't perceive them he's a fool. If he perceives them and ignores them, he's a knave. There aren't two ways of thinking about it. See a conversation in the same author's 'The Little Walls'.

Graham Retiet recently maried Cecily Ford
Bill and Min were divorced and he married Irene.

............ and Norman inherited their father's natural  aptitude for games, which I did not have to the same degree but like him was uninterested in the administrative side. At school I did gain my XI and XV Colours. At University I concentrated on  hockey, being Captain of the first team and a member of the Students' Representative Council 1921. Subsequently I was a founder and the first Hon. Secretary of the Soth African Men's Hockey Union 1925, also representing the O.F.S. in the Inter-Provincial tournaments from 1926 to 1930. I played for the Technical College Cricket XI in the Western Province Senior Competition until incapacitated by an old Rugby injury to my left knee.

NOTES CHAPTER 13
1. Thelma and I met through a mutual interest in sport at U.T.C. where she was Hon. Secretary and a member of the Women's first ..........team, captained by her sister Lydia, who while teaching subsequently qualified as an Air Pilot and joined the W.A.A.F. and was admitted as an attorney and notary to please my father, but preferred education, and a career as I was not enamoured of office work and the feeling of being 'cabined, cribbed, confined' had persisted! In a confidential letter dated 4.'16 my great uncle Tom Walker wrote in reply to my father's enquiry "Jack said he would like to be a farmer or a commercial traveller. Have you told your father what your desire is? Yes, but he said "We'll have none of that"

2. Theal Vol. II before 1795, pp.349 and 365-6
Lawrence Green in 'Land of Afternoon' facing p.97 reproduces Poorterman's drawing of the interior of the Laubscher farmhouse of Saldanha Bay in 1848.
{Lawrence Green) "Grow lovely, growing old" p.13 "On old maps Melkbosch Strand appears as Losperd's Bay......I think a member of the old Loubser family, of Swiss origin, gave his name to the bay. There was a Loubser farming at Salt River before the end of the 17th century and what was more natural than that he should drive his cattle a short way up the coast in search of grazing. Losper is of course a corruption of Loubser".

3. Kotze became a jealous defender of judicial independence and came into conflict with the executive , President Kruger, and the legislature, the Volsraad. Kotze wished to check the hasty legfislation and to test resolutions (besluite). See Eric Walker: History of South Africa.
The brothers and sisters of my wife's mother Maria Kotze were:-
Elizabeth Johanna who married Jan Teubes; Sebastina Maria who married Nicholas Basson of Swartwater, Darling; John Jurgen Kotze of Kliphoek, Berg River, who married Alida Lindenberg; Constant Laubscher Kotze who married Nettie Truter and settled in the Transvaal, Geesie Maria who married Dirk Visser of Hopefield; Willem Adriaan van Schoor Kotze of Berg River who married Ella Bester; Anna Jacoba who married Jacobus Eksteen of De Hoek, Piketberg, Hendrick Kotze who married Barbara Nel nee Van Blerk and settled in the Transvaal; Julius Bremer who married Sarah Hoek.
The Kotze family produced a fast bowler in J.J. Kotze who represented South Africa in three tours of England viz:- 1901, losing 9 ex 25 games; 1904, losing only 3 ex 26, and 1907, losing only 4 ex 31. He also played in two tests during the Australian tour of South Africa in 1902, when out of six games played three were won and three drawn.

4. Theal, Vol. III before 1795, p.110. Jacob Cloete was granted the farm Eklenberg, Rondebosch.

5. "The History of S. A. Rugby Football" by Ivor Difford.

6. "The Varsity Spirit" by Babrow and Stent.
John captasined all his teams at the Diocesan College including first XV and was vice-captain of the Cricket XI, playing in the W.P. Nuffield team for two seasons., but he had no appetite later for body line bowling which might be compared to the 'late tackling' of rugby. Could he be fairly censured?
The writer understandably attributed the end of my son's rugby career to a motor-cycle accident but that near fatality actually occurred in 1960, the year after he qualified in medicine. During his first year he played for Combined Southern Universities but during his second year in the Varsity XV he had become out of tune with the methods of the coach in particular fundamentals he had unfortunately inherited some of his father's and grandfather's independent spirit- and decided to concentrate more on his studies. He continued to play rugby as his professors were keen followers of the game, but was content to play in the second team. In its report of the 1958 Intervarsity, when U.C.T. took a hammering in all games except the second which was drawn, 'Die Burger' paid the sides the following tribute:- Maandag, 2 Junie-
...Die kuns van verdediging het beslis nie verlore gegaan nie- altans nie by die tweede spanne van die Maties en dieIkeys wat Saterdag op Nuweland aan die Intervarsity deelgeneem het nie. Die twee spanne het mekaar so vasgevat dat die Intervarsity van die tweede spanne vir die eerste keer sedert 1911 op'n puntelose gelykop spel uitgeloop het.
Dit is darem nie die eerste keer dat die tweede spanne gelykop speel in Intervarsity nie, maar is beslis nie iets wat so baie gebeursoos met dieeerste spanne me. Sedert 1911 het nog net vier Intervarsities tussen die tweede spanne gelykop geeindig, maar in al 6-6. Vanjaar is die eerste keer dat die wedstryd met 0-0 gelykop eindig.
Dit was'n taat wedstryd van die eerste water wat die groot skare tot die end geboei het en waarin die spanning teen die end geweldig hoog opgelaai het. In die laaste paar minute was eers die Maties en toe die Ikeysbaie na aan punte, maar die verdediging het.
In die begin was dit die Ikeys wat die Maties lekker laat bontstaan het, maar na rustyd het die Maties met hul swaarder voorspelers 'n houvas op die spel begin kry. Hulle was toe in staat om aanval na aanval op die Ikeys se doellyn te los, maar hulle het hul elke keer teen rotsvaste verdediging vasgeloop.
Een man wat  soos.n paal bo water bo sy spanmaats uitstaan, is Midgley, heelagter van U. Kaapstad. As die Ikeys nie vir Midgley in die laaste vesting gehad het nie, sou hulle beslis'n paar punte teen hulle gehad het.
Midgley, wat verlede jaar gereeld vir die eerste span losskakel gespeel het, kon Saterdaggeen voet verkeerd sit nie. Hy het die bal pragtig gevang en die Maties telkens met lang skoppe teruggeddryf. Hy het ook talle gevaarlike bewegings net betyds gekeer..."
 

NOTES CHAPTER 14
1. Theal Vol. III since 1795, pp.24, 25.

2. Cory Vol. IV pp.455-7
"A young man, John Crawford Smith, son of one of the heads of 1820 settler parties who had already been killed by Kaffirs (Xosas), had taken a load of Peddie. He was then ordered by a Mr. Cumming, the commissariat officer, to take his waggon to a distant forest and cut wood. This was about the time when Kaffirs (Xosas) were congregating in those parts for their attack on Fort Peddie. The previous week a wood-cutting party had gone out with an escort, had been attacked by Kaffirs (Xosas) and with some difficulty returned with the loss of one of the waggons.
Smith and others refused to go, partly because they considered it was no part of their contract but more because they were afraid to go into an obviously dangerous place.. Mr. Cumming after stating that he would have no more of this d_____d nonsense, went off to the Colonel's quarters and reported them. Colonel Lindsay, in a fury, came down accompanied by a party of soldiers and ordered all those who refused to cut wood to stand forward. All the waggoners did so. Asked for an explanation of their conduct, they said they feared to go without a protecting escort. The Colonel told them that it was not his intention they should and that the soldiers then there with him were to go with them.
The waggoners now being satisfied consented to go and were moving off, when Col. Lindsay shouted that he would thrash one of them as an example to the others and show them that he had the power to do so. He then ordered  four men to seize Smith, strip him and tie him to the wheel of a waggon. The men did so very reluctantly. The Colonel seeing this shouted "What! four men can't strip one! Send two more" In  the end poor Smith's back was bared and his hands and feet made fast to the waggon wheel. The cat-o'-nine-tails was then laid on. When the blood began to run down, another waggoner, a young man named Arrowsmith, fell on his knees before the brutal Colonel and begged for mercy for his companion. He was told that unless he got up immediately he would be treated in the same manner. Smith received twent-five lashes."

3. The children of Tom Midgley and Martha Ann Saville were:-
    Saville d. 1910 with issue Violet, Tom Arthur; Arnold d. 1952 with issue Arnold Kenneth, Desmond Clifford, Richard Rowland, Joan Alma, John Edward, Arnold Benjamin, Graham Michael; John d. 1935 with issue George, Arthur, Margaret; Herbert d.1957 with issue Justin, Michael, Mary, Jean, Ann; Margaret Robinson with issue Saville; and Ann, s.p.
As a contribution to the Republic's Water Year 1970 'The Motorist' in its January issue published an "informative article based on papers by Professor D.C. Midgley, South Africa's foremost hydrologist", namely Arnold's son, Desmond Clifford abovementioned. Another grandson of Tom Midgley is a master builder at Que Que in S. Rhodesia. Yet another, Margaret Robinson's son Saville is presently mayor of Port Shepstone, as was his father before him from 1936 to 1939. References are made to some Saville branches in the text. Vide end of Chapter 4. This family (Savile, Savill, Saville) is an old extensive aristocratic one in Yorkshire and the owl is the distinguishing feature in the Crest of all. The highest ranking member I think was the second Marquess of Halifax whose peerages became extinct when he died in 1700 s.p.m.

4. During the revolt of the Brigantes at the close of the third century a Roman iron industry which had developed in and around the Spen valley between Calderdale and Bradford came to an untimely end. Near Bierley iron slag heaps have been found associated with coins of Diocletian, Carausius, Constantius and Constantine (A.D. 287-306) but nothing later. Proof of the unsettled conditions in the last century of Roman occupation of Britain.

5. Dr. O.O. Midgley's death in 1952 at the age of 38 was an untimely one. His widow Mimsy nee Basson, who lives in Sea Point was left with four young  children to be reared and this she has done most creditably.
The following information was obtained from the Cape Archives for me by Margaret Cairns, nee Twentyman-Jones, L.L.B.
  1. Death Notice of Thomas Midgley, 5789/1869, D.N. Vol.6/9/129
      Born Yorkshire: parents- unknown; age 63 widower; died on 10.12.1869 at Albany General Hospital.
Children: Mary Anne, Hannah, John, Sarah Anne, Samuel, Ellen, George- all majors, Robert and Henry minors.

 2. Death Notice of John Midgley 75/1880. D.N. Vol. 6/9/174
Furter:ob.died 2.5.1880 at his residence in the village of Adelaide.
Children:Ellen Sophia married to T. Walker, John Henry, Thomas George, Elizabeth Ann, Clara Taylor, Albert Samuel, Ada, Sarah Jane.
Signed S.E. Midgley X her mark widow.

3. Albert Samuel born Adelaide., died aged 25 unmarried; parents John and Sophia Elizabeth; shop keeper and general dealer 1690/1895. D.N. Vol. 6/9/343
Another Midgley who came out to the Eastern Province and settled in Grahamstown was one Thomas Midgley who left no male heirs. Vide death notice 1959/1887, D.N. Vol. 6/9/251
Born Bradford, Yorkshire, of parents John and Ann Midgley on 6th May 1840; married to Maria Woods at St. Catherine's Church, Dublin Ireland: plumber; died age 47, on 8.11.1887 at his residence in Serrurier Street, Grahamstown.
Children: Eva, b.23.6.1876; Evelyn, b.6.12.1878; Irene, b.5.5.1883; and Bertha Beatrice, b.13.1885 - all minors.
"The deceased left no property, he having on 5.11.1887 by deed of donation, 'mortis causa', given all his estate and property to me, Maria Midgley, his wife, subject to the payment of his past debts, funeral and testamentary expenses..." Sighned in London, Maria Midgley.

While writing of Yorkshiremen, I would like to record that Frederick Lumb, the father of George Lumb a member of the firm of Mills Litho (Pty) Ltd., the printers hereof, came from Leeds to settle in South Africa early this century. His wife Flora was always a loyal pillar of mine while Principal of the old Plumstead School. Incidentally Lumb Falls is a natural feature not far from Midgley.

4. Samuel Midgley had a very full life. As a member of the Council of the Incorporated Society of Musicians he met many English artists. He was associated as a performer with many others such as Hugo Becker, the German violoncellist, Pablo Casals, Moskowski, Fritz Kreisler, Charles and Lady Halle, John McCormack, Mesdames Patey, Nordica, Carreno, Mignon Nevada, and Ella Russell, to mention a few, and with the composer Frederick Delius. His correspondence, reminiscences, obiter dicta and travels provide most interesting reading. The climax of a long musical career was the award of honorary membership of the Royal college of Music, founded 1883, in its jubilee year 1933, proof that he had attained a position of some mark in the world of music. His daughter, May, was on tour in the Union with the Sheffield Choir, just before World War I, as was my cousin Watson Walker.

STOP PRESS
The abovementioned D.C. Midgley, Professor of Hydraulic Engineering at the University of the Witwatersrand has just returned from a tour of Canada, the United States and Australia. He inspected the scheme on the upper Columbia River to provide water to Canada and the United States and another massive proposal from the Yukon right down to the Sacramento Valley. He considers that agreement with Mocambique and Oxbow has been drawn out too long. "If South Africa could not get water from other countries she would turn to nuclear energy and desalination of sea water. This would shift the centre of development towards the coast instead of inland. The result would be a disaster for the neighbouring territories as they are all well away from our coastline."
Vide Argus 17/7/70. Incidentally see reference to the late Thomas Midgley of the U.S.A. Footnote 9 Chapter 10.

ADDENDA TO NOTES AND COMMENTARY
Chapter 4 Note 1
William's army must have passed nearby Midgley when he struck across the Pennines from Yorkshire into Cheshire that very wet winter, 'Never', wrote the Chronicler Orderic, "had King William used such cruelty". 'Hoc est wasta' repeatedly occurs in Yorkshire entries of the Domesday Book. With the introduction of the Feudal System the fabric of the Saxon-Anglo-Danish-State was left largely untouched by William though the ranks of the men in charge were changed, for instance the framework of the hundred and shire courts remained but were composed largely of French lords of estate. R.J. Adam.

Chapter 5 Note 12
Edward III's family settlement of 1377 and the "over-mighty Subject" led to the Wars of the Roses. "Weak as is the 14th century. the 15th is weaker still, more futile, more bloody, more immoral" Mowat quoting Stubbs' Constitutional History.
Nevertheless they ushered in the glories of the Tudor reigns, after the caste nobility had been almost completely exterminated in the fighting and hereditary feuds. The country gentlemen and middle classes stepped into their places in the local government of the country and increasing numbers of these also served as King's Ministers. Incidentally the expression "Wars of the Roses" is a misnomer for the red rose was never a badge of the House of Lancaster. Kenneth Vickers. It was an invention of the 16th century. Mowat.

End of Chapter 3 page 17
William's invasion was in the nature of a "crusade" approved by Pope Alexander II and based on alleged promises of the succession by pro-Norman Edward the Confessor, and by Harold under duress. Before his death Edward apparently aquiesced to Harold's exhaltation but in any event that was the right of the Witan who duly elected Harold.

Chapter 8 Note 14
After a siege by Oliver Cromwell of nearly two months the garrison of Pembroke Castle was starved into surrender 11/7/1648. The only retribution exacted was on its brave commander Colonel Poyer who was shot at Covent Garden on 25th April 1649.
 

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Copyright © Tim Midgley March 2004, revised October 2004. Typed from a copy kindly donated by David & Milnethorpe Midgley of Tasmania from an out of print book by John Franklin Midgley 1970.
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